Author Archive

Debian-Powered Drupal Configuration Policy

Thursday, October 4th, 2012

By Elizabeth Krumbach

LinuxForce’s web hosting services are designed to provide our customers with the benefits of strong security, simple on-going administration and maintenance, and support for the web software to work well in a large number of situations including multi-site support for applications.

We achieve these objectives by operating a Debian infrastructure with close adherence to Debian’s policy, web application policy and PHP policy.

In particular, we use the Debian package for Drupal 6. This provides community supported upgrades with a strong, well-documented policy. Like other software which ships in Debian, the software version is often somewhat older than the most recent upstream release, but it is regularly patched for security by the maintainer and the Debian security team.

In addition, this infrastructure also offers:

  • Only one package needs to be upgraded whenever there is a security patch, instead of every site individually
  • Strong separation from site specific themes, modules, libraries, uploaded files helps keep files you want to edit away from the Drupal core files (which you don’t want to edit)
  • The automation the infrastructure provides disk, memory, and sysadmin time to be minimized, thus reducing costs
  • The benefits of code maturity, as the Debian Drupal maintainers have thought through many boundary cases which it would take our staff time and trial-and-error to re-discover

Site layout

Experienced Drupal admins may find some of the file locations for the package confusing at first, so let’s clarify the differences to ease the transition.

Our infrastructure supports multiple sites per server. This is implemented by providing each site with their own dbconfig.php and settings.php files, plus the following directories:

  • files/
  • themes/
  • modules/
  • libraries/

All of these are configurable by the user, and are located in /etc/drupal/6/sites/ The site also inherits the contents of these default directories from core Drupal.

Access to these files via FTP is discussed below.

Core Drupal files are located in /usr/share/drupal6/ and are shared between all the Drupal sites on the server. They should not be edited since all changes to these files will be lost upon upgrade of the Debian Drupal package.

Users & Permissions

A jailed userdrupal FTP account is created to manage the files for the Drupal install.

The userdrupal account is the owner of all the configurable files located in /etc/drupal/6/sites/

The system-wide www-data user must have access to the following by having the www-data group own them and be given the appropriate permissions:

  • Read access to dbconfig.php
  • Write access to the files/ directory (this is where Drupal typically stores uploaded files)

All files (with the exception of dbconfig.php) should be writable by userdrupal, the userdrupal group itself is enforced by the system but all users should be configured client-side to respect group read-write permissions to maintain strict security, this is a umask of 002.

Additional Users and non-Drupal Directories

If there is a non-developer who needs to have access to the files directory, for instance, a specific FTP user for that use may be created and added to the userdrupal group.

For ease of administration, if multiple users exist and we are able to support an ssh account (static IP from client required) for handling administration, sudo can be configured to allow said user to execute commands on behalf of the userdrupal ftp user. Remember to add “umask 002” to the .bashrc to respect group read-write permissions.

If additional directories outside the Drupal infrastructure are required for a site, they will be placed in /srv/www/ and a separate jailed ftp user created to manage the files here. If a cgi-bin is required, it will be placed in /srv/www/

Caveats and Cautions

Because of shared use for core Drupal files located in /usr/share/drupal6/ you may experience problems with the following:

  • Some drush commands and plugins assume the drupal files are editable files within the same document root as the rest of your files, thus may not work as expected
  • When you upgrade the drupal6 package all sites are upgraded at once without testing, customers who are concerned about the impact of the upgrade changes and require very high uptimes can be accommodated by testing the site with the upgraded versions of PHP and Drupal in a testing VM
  • Since the Debian package name does not change, you cannot install the drupal6 package from an older Debian version alongside one from a current version, a separate virtualized Debian environment may be needed for testing upgrades if support is uncertain (this issue does not exist with upgrades from drupal6 to drupal7, as they can be installed alongside each other)
  • A policy for handling root level .htaccess files should be developed if they wish to be used


Although the Debian way differs from the Drupal tarball approach, it makes it possible to scale the service to many sites saving disk, memory, and sysadmin effort. By leveraging this Drupal infrastructure provided by Debian, Linuxforce provides one-off Debian package deployments to dedicated systems, shared arrangements for small businesses who are running several sites, and infrastructure deployments for businesses who provide hosting services. We also offer a boutique hosting service for select customers on one of our systems.

5 things about FOSS Linux virtualization you may not know

Tuesday, July 17th, 2012

By Elizabeth Krumbach

In January I attended the 10th annual Southern California Linux Expo. In addition to speaking and running the Ubuntu booth, I had an opportunity to talk to other sysadmins about everything from selection of distribution to the latest in configuration management tools and virtualization technology.

I ended up in a conversation with a fellow sysadmin who was using a proprietary virtualization technology on Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Not only did he have surprising misconceptions about the FOSS (Free and Open Source Software) virtualization tools available, he assumed that some of the features he was paying extra for (or not, as the case may be) wouldn’t be in the FOSS versions of the software available.

Here are five features that you might be surprised to find included in the space of FOSS virtualization tools:

1. Data replication with verification for storage in server clusters

When you consider storage for a cluster there are several things to keep in mind:

  • Storage is part of your cluster too, you want it to be redundant
  • For immediate failover, you need replication between your storage devices
  • For data integrity, you want a verification mechanism to confirm the replication is working

Regardless of what you use for storage (a single hard drive, a RAID array, or an iSCSI device), the open source DRBD (Distributed Replicated Block Device) offers quick replication over a network backplane and verification tools you can run at regular intervals to ensure deta integrity.

Looking to the future, the FOSS distributed object store and file system Ceph is showing great promise for more extensive data replication.

2. Automatic failover in cluster configurations

Whether you’re using KVM Kernel-based Virtual Machine or Xen, automatic failover can be handled via a couple of closely integrated FOSS tools, Pacemaker and Corosync. At the core, Pacemaker handles core configuration of the resources themselves and Corosync handles quorum and “aliveness” checks of the hosts and resources and logic to manage moving Virtual Machines.

3. Graphical interface for administration

While development of graphical interfaces for administration is an active area, many of the basic tasks (and increasingly, more complicated ones) can be made available through the Virtual Machine Manager application. This manager uses the libvirt toolkit, which can also be used to build custom interfaces for management.

The KVM website has a list of other management tools, ranging from command-line (CLI) to Web-based:

As does the Xen wiki:

4. Live migrations to other hosts

In virtualized environments it’s common to reboot a virtual machine to move it from one host to another, but when shared storage is used it is also possible to do live migrations on KVM and Xen. During these live migrations, the virtual machine retains state as it moves between the physical machines. Since there is no reboot, connections stay intact and sessions and services continue to run with only a short blip of unavailability during the switch over.

Documentation for KVM, including hardware and software requirements for such support, can be found here:

5. Over-allocating shared hardware

KVM has the option to take full advantage of hardware resources by over-allocating both RAM (with adequate swap space available) and CPU. Details about over-allocation and key warnings can be found here: Overcommitting with KVM.


Data replication with verification for storage, automatic failover, graphical interface for administration, live migrations and over-allocating shared hardware are currently available with the FOSS virtualization tools included in many modern Linux distributions. As with all moves to a more virtualized environment, deployments require diligent testing procedures and configuration but there are many on-line resources available and the friendly folks at LinuxForce to help.

An Infrastructure for Server Clusters for High Availability

Thursday, May 17th, 2012

By Elizabeth Krumbach

As announced in our Cluster Services Built With FOSS post, LinuxForce’s Cluster Services are built exclusively with Free and Open Source Software (FOSS). Here is an expanded outline of the basic architecture of our approach to High-Availability (HA) clustering.


In any HA deployment there are two main components: hosts and guests. The hosts are the systems which are the core of the cluster itself. The host runs with very limited services dedicated for the use and functioning of the cluster. The host systems handle resource allocation, from persistent storage to RAM to the number of CPUs each guest gets. The host machines give an “outside” look at guest performance and give the opportunity to manipulate them from outside the guest operating system. This offers significant advantages when there are boot or other failures which traditionally would require physical (or at least console) access to debug. The guests in this infrastructure are the virtual machines (VMs) which will be running the public-facing services.

On the host, we define a number of “resources” to manage the guest systems. Resources are defined for ping checking the hosts, bringing up shared storage or storage replication (like drbd) as primary on one machine or the other and launching the VMs.

In the simplest case, the cluster infrastructure is used for new server deployments, in which case the operating system installs are fresh and the services are new. More likely a migration from an existing infrastructure will be necessary. Migrations from a variety of sources are possible including from physical hardware, other virtualization technologies (like Xen) or different KVM infrastructures which may already use many of the same core features, like shared storage. When a migration is required downtime can be kept to a minimum through several techniques.

Hardware configuration

The first consideration when you begin to build a cluster is the hardware. The basic requirement for a small cluster is 3 servers and a fast dedicated network backplane to connect the servers. The three servers can all be active as hosts, but we typically have a configuration where two machines are the hosts and a third, less powerful arbitrator system is available to make sure there is a way to break ties when there is resource confusion.

Two live resource hosts

These systems will be where the guests are run. They should be as similar as possible down to the selection of processor brand and amount of RAM and storage capabilities so that both machines are capable of fully taking over for the other in case of a failure, thus ensuring high availability.

The amount of resources required will be heavily dependent upon the services you’re running. When planning we recommend thinking about each guest as a physical machine and how many resources it needs, allowing room for inevitable expansion of services over time. You can over-commit both CPU and RAM on KVM, so you will want to read a best practices guide such as Chapter 6: Overcommitting with KVM. Disk space requirements and configuration will vary greatly depending upon your deployment, including the ability to use shared storage backplanes and replicated RAID arrays, but Linux Software RAID will typically be used for the core operating system install controlling each physical server. Additionally, using a thorough testing process so you know how your services will behave if they run out of resources is critical to any infrastructure change.

Tie-breaker (arbitrator)

A third server is required to complete quorum for the cluster. In our configuration this machine doesn’t need to have high specs or a lot of storage space. We typically use at least RAID1 so we have file system redundancy for this host.

1000M switch

A fast switch whose only job is to handle traffic between the three machines is highly recommended for assured speed of these two vital resources:

  1. Storage backplane
  2. Corosync/Pacemaker communication

It’s best to keep these off a shared network, which may be prone to congestion or failure, since fast speeds for both these resources are important for a properly functioning cluster.

Key software components

There are many options when it comes to selecting your HA stack, from which Linux distribution to use, to what storage replication system to use. We have selected the following:

Debian GNU/Linux

Like most LinuxForce solutions, we start with a base of Debian stable, currently Debian “Squeeze” 6.0. All of the software mentioned in this article comes from the standard Debian stable repository and is open source and completely free of charge.

Logical Volume Manager (LVM)

We use LVM extensively throughout our deployments for the flexibility of easy reallocation of filesystem resources. In a cluster infrastructure it is used to create separate disk images for each guest and then may be used again inside this disk image for partitioning.

Distributed Replicated Block Device (DRBD)

DRBD is used for replicating storage between the two hosts which have their own storage. Storage needs could also be met by shared storage or other data replication mechanisms.

Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM)

Since hardware-based virtualization is now ubiquitous on modern server hardware we use KVM for our virtualization technology. It allows fully virtualized VMs running their own unmodified kernels to run directly on the hardware without the overhead of a hypervisor or emulation.

Pacemaker & Corosync

Pacemaker and Corosync are used together to do the heavy lifting of the cluster management. The two services are deeply intertwined, but at the core Pacemaker handles core configuration of the resources themselves, and Corosync handles quorum and “aliveness” checks of the hosts and resources and determination of where resources should go.


We have deployed this infrastructure for mission critical services including DNS, FTP and web server infrastructures serving everything from internal ticketing systems to high-traffic public-facing websites. For a specific example of implementation of this infrastructure, see Laird Hariu’s report File Servers – The Business Case for High Availability where he covers the benefits of HA for file servers.

Image in this post by Jeannie Moberly, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Cluster Services Built With FOSS

Thursday, January 12th, 2012

By Elizabeth Krumbach

Built on the Free/Open Source Software (FOSS) model for cluster deployments, LinuxForce staff has been hard at work over the past months developing and deploying LinuxForce Cluster Services built upon exclusively FOSS technologies and on December 15th we put out a press release:

Announcing LinuxForce Cluster Services

In September Laird Hariu wrote the article “File Servers – The Business Case for High Availability” where, in addition to building a case to use clusters, he also briefly outlined how Debian and other FOSS could be used to create a cluster for a file server. File servers are just the beginning, we have deployed clusters which host web, mail, DNS and more.

The core of this infrastructure uses Debian 6.0 (Squeeze) 64-bit and then depending upon the needs and budget of the customer, and whether they have a need for high availability, we use tools including Pacemaker, Corosync, rsync, drbd and KVM. Management of this infrastructure is handled remotely through the virtualization API libvirt using the virsh and Virtual Machine Manager.

The ability to use such high-quality tools directly from the repositories in the stable Debian distribution keeps our maintenance costs down, avoids vendor lock-in and gives companies like ours the ability offer these enterprise-level clustering solutions to small and medium size businesses for reasonable prices.

Fosscon 2011 Keynote Video and Slides

Wednesday, August 24th, 2011

By Elizabeth Krumbach

The video of Elizabeth Krumbach Keynoting at Fosscon in Philadelphia Saturday 23 July 2011 is now on-line:

Direct link to video on youtube.

The slides are not visible in the video, you can view or download them at

Attending the Ubuntu Developer Summit in Budapest

Thursday, May 5th, 2011

By Elizabeth Krumbach

On Saturday, May 7th, I’ll be taking a flight out to Budapest, Hungary to attend the week-long Ubuntu Developer Summit (UDS) as the kick-off event to the development of the next Ubuntu release, 11.10 (code name Oneiric Ocelot) coming out in October 2011.

The Ubuntu Developer Summit is the seminal Ubuntu event in which we define the focus and plans for our up-coming version of Ubuntu. The event pulls together Canonical engineers, community members, partners, ISVs, upstreams and more into an environment focused on discussion and planning.

My role at these summits as an Ubuntu Community Council member tends to be on community work, which includes recruitment and retention of volunteers to the Ubuntu community. I will also attend sessions related to upstream collaboration; most worthy of note are the collaboration sessions related to Debian as my primary development interest remains there. Debian is the parent distribution of Ubuntu, which LinuxForce almost exclusively deploys to our customers.

This will be my third time attending a UDS. I’m excited to see what I will learn, from the possibilities for the next release to the new ideas I will be able to apply in my day-to-day work. So much comes from such in-person collaborations with fellow contributors.

Debian Squeeze 6.0 Installation Over SSH

Wednesday, March 23rd, 2011

By Elizabeth Krumbach

One of the great benefits of the Debian Installer is the ability to boot an ISO image, set up networking and complete an installation remotely via SSH (Secure Shell). You can use the following steps to get the installer launched.

Boot from the CD and in the Installer boot menu select “Advanced options >”

Select “Expert install”

The installer will load up and you will be presented with the Debian installer main menu.

If necessary set the default language and keyboard (you can reconfigure them later once you get this going over SSH if needed), and then select “Detect and mount CD-ROM”.

It then prompts you to load modules from USB storage, if you have drivers to load from USB you’ll want to accept. It then asks about PCMCIA resource range options, since our hardware didn’t require this we left it blank. Finally, if all goes well, you receive a confirmation screen saying that the CD-ROM detection was successful and that it contained the expected installation media.

The next option on the menu is “Load installer components from CD”, which you want to select. Browse the list, but for basic needs the only thing you need to load up is “network-console: Continue installation remotely using SSH”

Now you’ll need to get networking going. Select “Detect network hardware” and then “Configure the network”. In this step, in addition to basic networking, it will ask you to set a hostname and domain name.

Next you want to “Continue installation remotely using SSH” which will generate SSH host keys and have you set a remote installation password. Once it has these set up you will be presented with a screen giving you an installer@ipaddress location for the install and an SSH fingerprint. You or your remote technician will use these to SSH into the installer.

Finally, log in from your remote PC and complete the installation.

Note: It’s important to keep a solid connection established during the installation as the installer can behave poorly if you lose your connection and have to connect again. Also, try to avoid resizing the window while doing the install as redraws of the window to the new size can sometimes cause problems.

One way to migrate Xen virtual machines to KVM in Debian

Thursday, November 18th, 2010

By Elizabeth Krumbach

There are dozens of virtualization products on the market. When we launched our first high-availability cluster in early 2008 we chose Xen due to it’s ability to run on non-virtualized hardware, support in Debian 4.0 (Etch) and general flexibility. We’ve learned a lot about the upstream of Xen, including the challenges that Debian maintainers face, and we were increasingly drawn to another free and open source virtualization technology, Kernel Based Virtual Machine (KVM). The primary downside to KVM is that it requires special CPU hardware support to run, but this hardware support is now almost ubiquitous on modern servers. KVM has the advantage of being supported upstream in the Linux kernel itself, removing the onus of difficult kernel patching from the Debian Developers and has become the supported virtualization option for Ubuntu, Fedora and Red Hat. Additionally, KVM allows the guests to run unaltered, meaning you don’t need a special kernel and can run many OSes, from Linux to FreeBSD to Windows 7.

We still work on a number of machines which lack hardware virtualization support, but as our customers upgrade hardware we’ve begun moving production virtual machines from Xen to KVM. In tackling the migrations of these production virtual machines we encountered several challenges, the major ones being:

  • In Xen, partitions were created in separate logical volumes on the host and mounted by Xen itself and as a result we didn’t require Logical Volume Manager (LVM) within our Xen guests, in KVM the logical volume on the host for a virtual machine is a single disk image, not separate partitions.
  • In Xen, the kernel package is not installed, in KVM it is required
  • In Xen, you don’t have an independent bootloader on the OS, in KVM you need one to boot

The first step was to create a partition table on the new KVM image which is identical to the one on Xen. We wanted to use LVM within the guest, which required a Matryoshka (Russian) doll approach. First we’d create a volume group on the host to give us the typical flexibility of LVM host-side, and then we’d create one on the disk image giving us the flexibility required within the guest itself to expand any partitions. Finally we’d need to bootstrap the new system and copy the files over.

One way to go about all of this is a manual process. This solution would allow for scripting the procedure but requires a significant investment of time to get everything right so there is the least amount of down time possible. Since we only have a half dozen of these VMs to migrate in total, we looked for some way which already existed for handling all these steps in a familiar way, which is when we looked to the Debian Installer. Assuming a local mirror of core Debian packages (recommended), we could install a skeleton system on a test IP address which was properly partitioned, had LVM configured and bootstrapped in less than 20 minutes. We could then take this skeleton system that we’re sure is an functioning, bootable system and move the files over from the Xen installs, arguably decreasing our risk with each migration and the downtime required.

To get started, you’ll first need to calculate the total size of the current VM and lvcreate a slice of that size on the KVM system, then launch the Debian installer against the image using virt-install, something like:

virt-install --connect qemu:///system -n -r 768 -f /dev/mapper/ -s 12 -c /var/lib/libvirt/images/debian-506-i386-netinst.iso --vnc --noautoconsole --accelerate --os-type linux --os-variant debianLenny

In this example we assume the debian-506-i386-netinst.iso is in /var/lib/libvirt/images/ and we want 768M of RAM, the information you put here is similar to the information that you would have previously defined in your /etc/xen/ file for Xen.

Then use virt-manager to connect (we actually connected from a remote desktop running virt-manager) to the running install session (the standard Debian installer does not provide serial access) and install Debian, you will need the root password to launch the installer. Proceed to install.

When you get to the step to partition the disks, lay out the partition table to be identical to the VM you want to migrate to it except put it on LVM, put /boot on a separate partition outside of LVM. Complete the install, including installing grub.

Confirm that the system will boot and works on a test IP address and make a copy of your /etc/fstab to the host system, you’ll need this later.

You now have a skeleton install of Debian which runs on KVM with the LVM partitions you need.

To begin the actual data migration, you’ll want to mount the volumes within your new KVM disk, this can be done with the help of a great little mapping tool called kpartx. To map and activate the volume group on the guest, following these steps:

kpartx -av /dev/VolumeGroup/
vgchange -ay guest

In this example we assume the Linux Volume on the host is called “” and the Linux Volume within the guest is called “guest”.

Now that the host can see the Volume Group on the guest, and all the Volumes in /dev/mapper/ you’ll want to mount them.

Once mounted, you’ll be able to start your rsync. To incur the least amount of downtime, you’ll want to rsync the large data partitions (like /srv, /home, /var, perhaps /usr) while your production host is still running. Note: All rsyncs completed during this process must be done with the “–numeric-ids” option so the permissions are not inherited from the host!

While you’re rsyncing the data, you’ll want to go into your Xen system and install the following packages (installing these will no impact your Xen system, it doesn’t strictly use them so it will simply ignore them):

  • linux-image-2.6-686
  • grub
  • lvm2

When you’ve completed moving the largest portions of your Xen guest, bring down the production Xen guest (downtime starts now!) and mount the filesystems. And begin rsyncing the data over (preferably over a crossover cable for the fastest transfer, remember to use –numeric-ids in your rsync).

Once the rsync is complete, edit the following files on the KVM host:

  • /mnt/guest/etc/fstab – use the version you saved to the host in a previous step
  • /mnt/guest/etc/inittab – uncomment the ttyS0 line to allow for serial access from the KVM host for virsh
  • /mnt/guest/etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules – comment out eth0 line so eth0 can come up on the new KVM MAC address

Unmount the filesystems on both sides and on the KVM side disable the volume group and use kpartx again to unmap the filesystem from the host:

sudo vgchange -an guest
sudo kpartx -dv /dev/VolumeGroup/

You’re now ready to boot the VM on the KVM side. This can be done with virt-manager or virsh.

Since you just moved the machines to a new server, and probably new MAC addresses, you will probably need to run the arping command to reclaim the IP address of the VM and all its service IP addresses.

Some things to confirm are working:

  • Networking (confirm there are no lingering arp caching issues)
  • Email (where applicable, confirm system messages etc are being sent)
  • All services running (confirm key services, review monitoring dashboard, log in via ssh)
  • Confirm that you have contiguous logs

Now that we’ve completed one of these migrations we have a lot of ideas about how to improve the process, including the possibility of making the whole process more scriptable, but this quick method leveraging the Debian installer for easier disk configuration and bootstrapping worked very well.

Organizations Learning to Contribute to FOSS “The Right Way”

Friday, May 7th, 2010

By Elizabeth Krumbach

A couple weeks ago I wrote that I would be attending the 4th Annual Linux Foundation Collaboration Summit. I wrote about much of my experience there and at the Open Source Business Conference back in March over in my personal blog: “Lessons from Open Source Business Conference and the Linux Foundation Collaboration Summit”.

However, I also wanted to make a post here to cycle back to some of what I learned from the Collaboration Summit in relation to my March 30th post about contributing, “How and why contributing to FOSS can benefit your organization”. In this post I discussed using community tools, getting involved in the community and what steps you could take to get there. This was based upon several years of my own involvement in the FOSS (Free/Open Source Software) community directly and now my experience working for a company which makes FOSS contributions.

The talks at the Collaboration Summit strengthened my resolve in and increased the clarity of my understanding about the right way of going about contributing to FOSS as a company. At this conference there were multiple talks from major companies and figures within the FOSS business world which drove home the need for working with the community. All of these companies had stories about how they had tried to contribute to FOSS and struggled because they went about contributing as a walled off company rather than contributing just like other contributors did and using the same tools that contributors did.

A keynote which really stood out and succinctly discussed all of this was Dan Frye‘s talk, “10+ Years of Linux at IBM” (video). The first half of the keynote discusses the progress of Linux within IBM, but then he moves into discussing contributing itself. Some of their take-aways were that they needed to get involved directly with small contributions and do away with closed-door meetings and canned corporate responses, IBM employees were empowered to become community members. They needed to learn to collaborate with the community to develop higher quality solutions than they could have in-house, and to start these discussions with the community early in the brainstorming process. Related to collaboration, he also discusses control, and how a company does not have it within a community and needs to learn to deal with that, instead what a company should strive for is influence within a project to help guide direction and priorities. He also suggests never creating a project. Instead he encourages companies to join a project that’s close to what they need and work with them to take it in a direction that can benefit everyone and reach their goals and scratch their itches.

What struck me most at the conference regarding the subject of contributing is they are all reaching the same conclusions about the proper ways to successfully contribute. In the end, they learned that they must fully collaborate openly throughout development with the open source communities they’re working with.

Attending the Linux Foundation Collaboration Summit 2010

Tuesday, April 13th, 2010

By Elizabeth Krumbach

On the heels of the 5th Annual Emerging Technologies for the Enterprise Conference (ETE 2010) in Philadelphia that CJ attended last week, I’ll be attending the 4th Annual Linux Foundation Collaboration Summit tomorrow through Friday in San Francisco.

The Linux Foundation Collaboration Summit is an exclusive, invitation-only summit gathering core kernel developers, distribution maintainers, ISVs, end users, system vendors and other community organizations for plenary sessions and workgroup meetings to meet face-to-face to tackle and solve the most pressing issues facing Linux today.

My attendance will be in my capacity as a member of the Ubuntu Community Council as well as my role as a Debian Systems Administrator. As such, my attention will be split at the summit between community and governance interests, like the FOSSBazaar Workgroup and Josh Berkus’ How to Prevent Community: Making Sure Your Pond Stays Small, and talks and panels like Does Open Source Mean Open Cloud? where Ubuntu founder Mark Shuttleworth will be a panelist, and the Linux Standard Base Workgroup and Virtualization discussions.

It’s shaping up to be an exciting summit, if you are also attending be sure to say “Hello”!